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Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms LUTS with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements.
Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals Cancro alla prostata Herbal Medicine want Cancro alla prostata Herbal Medicine take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.
Saw palmetto Serenoa repens herbal supplements are commonly used by men to combat benign prostatic hyperplasia BPHa nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate. In addition to BPH, these supplements are commonly consumed by Cancro alla prostata Herbal Medicine diagnosed with prostate cancer. In5. A systematic literature review of 11 studies identified saw palmetto supplements as one of five commonly used complementary or alternative medicine modalities by men with prostate cancer; use was 1.
Another study found that The believed bioactive components of saw palmetto are fatty acids and phytosterols. Nevertheless, a combination of fatty acids, phytosterols, and other bioactive components may be responsible for beneficial effects reported from saw palmetto supplements. Saw palmetto extract decreased testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia [ 15 ] Cancro alla prostata Herbal Medicine rats and prostate cancer progression in TRAMP mice [ 14 ].
The two largest, highest-quality BPH clinical trials [ 3334 ], however, failed to find a benefit of supplementation, leading a systematic literature review to conclude that saw palmetto supplementation provides no benefit [ 35 ]. Cancro alla prostata Herbal Medicine methodological issues or distinctions may be responsible for these conflicting findings, it is also possible that differences in the nutrient profiles of the saw palmetto supplements used in the studies influenced the results.
In addition, Wolsko Cancro alla prostata Herbal Medicine al. Others have also measured fatty acid [ 1520414243 ] or phytosterol content [ 424445 ] of saw palmetto, but despite the reported differences in saw palmetto supplement contents, to the best of our knowledge, no one has characterized both the fatty acid and phytosterol contents of commercially available supplements or compared different supplement categories.
Thus, we set out to characterize these saw palmetto supplement components, hypothesizing that we would find large Cancro alla prostata Herbal Medicine in their quantities and composition.
Twenty commercially available saw palmetto supplements were procured from online and local sources. Supplements were classified into the following categories based on their physical properties: 1 liquids, 2 powders, 3 dried berries, and 4 tinctures Table 1. Representative samples from each category were prepared as follows. For liquids, 4—5 gel capsules were emptied into a microcentrifuge tube and gently vortexed. For powders, 4—5 powder capsules were emptied into a weigh boat and the contents were mixed thoroughly with a spatula to break up any lumps; tablets were ground to smooth powder using a mortar and pestle.
Dried berries were ground using a coffee grinder until they reached a coarse powder texture. Tincture bottles were vortexed before taking a sample. SRM ampoules were vortexed and the contents were transferred to microcentifuge tubes.
Samples, and SRM, were Cancro alla prostata Herbal Medicine and analyzed in duplicate. Care was taken to select the duplicates from the same lot number. Fatty acids were prepared for analysis using the one-step extraction-transesterification method [ 46 ]. Approximately 40 mg of SRM, 40 mg of liquid supplements, mg of powder supplements, mg of dried berry powder, or mg of tinctures were placed into 15 mL tubes with Teflon-lined screw caps.
Two milliliters of benzene containing 2 mg of the internal standard methyl tridecanoate Sigma-Aldrich, St. The supernatant was carefully transferred to vials for analysis. One microliter of sample was injected at a split ratio of The total run time was 66 min. Thirty-seven fatty acids were analyzed and quantified and contributed to the total fatty acid results reported, but only the six major fatty acids, laurate Cmyristate Cpalmitate Cstearate Coleate Cand linoleate Care reported individually.
The mean percent coefficient of variance between duplicates for total fatty acids was 0. Phytosterols were extracted using a method described previously with modifications [ 48 ]. Approximately mg of SRM, liquid, powder, and dried berry supplements and mg of tincture supplements were weighed into separate mL Erlenmeyer flasks.
Forty milliliters of 0. After cooling the flasks to room temperature, 40 mL of double-distilled water was added. Twenty milliliters of hexane was then added, and the contents were transferred to a separatory funnel.
The separatory funnel was Cancro alla prostata Herbal Medicine inverted, gently rotated, then allowed to stand for 5—10 min. The bottom white turbid aqueous layer was discarded retaining the clear upper hexane layer. The contents of the separatory funnel were then extracted by adding 20 mL of hexane twice. The clear hexane layers Cancro alla prostata Herbal Medicine collected and filtered through a glass funnel containing glass wool and sodium sulfate.
Phytosterols were derivitaized and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as described previously with modifications [ 49 ]. Two hundred microliters of extracted sample was used for derivatization. A smaller volume was used for samples that contained high levels of phytosterols. Samples were placed in 1. The front inlet was operating at a pressure of The total run time was The mass spectrometer was operated in the electron impact EI mode at 70 eV ionization energy.
The data were processed with Agilent Chemstation. The mean percent coefficient of variance between replicates for total phytosterol was Data were analyzed using SAS 9. The variation between Cancro alla prostata Herbal Medicine was assessed by Cancro alla prostata Herbal Medicine the standard deviation with duplicate mean and multiplying with to calculate the mean percent coefficient of variation.
Fatty acid quantities and percentages of the SRM, liquid, powder, dried berry, and tincture saw palmetto supplements are shown in Table 2 and Table 3. Oleate and laurate were the predominant fatty acids across the different supplement categories. Liquid supplements contained significantly higher quantities of total Liquid supplements contained significantly higher percentages of oleate and total fatty acids and significantly lower percentages of laurate and myristate than the other supplement categories.
The total fatty acid content of powder supplements Powder supplements contained significantly higher quantities of palmitate and stearate than dried berries and tinctures and significantly higher quantities of linoleate and total fatty acids than dried berries.
Powder supplements contained significantly higher palmitate and stearate percentages than the other supplement categories, and tinctures contained significantly higher percentages of laurate than liquid and powder supplements.
Samples and SRM from the same lot, were extracted and analyzed in duplicate. Samples, and SRM from the same lot, were extracted and analyzed in duplicate. Within supplement categories, fatty acid quantities and percentages across the three dried berry supplements were fairly consistent Table 2 and Table 3. Tinctures, on the other hand, varied widely, with total fatty acids ranging from 0.
There was less variability in total fatty acids in liquids Jarrow Formulas contained much higher quantities of linoleate than the other liquid supplements. Among powder supplements, Biochem contained lower quantities of laurate and myristate levels but higher quantities of stearate and oleate.
Phytosterol quantities and percentages in SRM, liquid, powder, dried berry, and tincture saw palmetto supplements are shown in Table 4 and Table 5. Jarrow formulas 8. Liquid supplements contained significantly higher total 2. The total phytosterol content of powders 0. Dried berries also contained significantly higher stigmasterol quantities than tincture supplements. Dried berry and tincture supplements also contained significantly higher percentages of stigmasterol than liquid and powder supplements.
Liquid and powder supplements had similar quantities of individual and total phytosterols, with the exception of Jarrow Formulas and Biochem, which contained much higher phytosterol quantities Table 4 and Table 5. Dried berry supplements had similar quantities and percentages of individual and total phytosterols.
All tincture supplements contained low phytosterols quantities. Stated total fatty acid content from supplement labels was only available for liquid supplements. These stated quantities are compared to measured content in Table 6.
Measured total fatty acid content in five out of six liquid supplements was greater than or equal to the quantities stated on their labels. Stated, measured, and percentage difference in total fatty acid content in liquid saw palmetto supplements. We found great variability in total and individual fatty acid and phytosterol quantities and percentages in 20 commercial saw palmetto supplements. There was also a great deal of variability in the total and individual fatty acid and phytosterol quantities and percentages Cancro alla prostata Herbal Medicine the four different saw palmetto supplement categories.
We believe we are the first to collect and analyze samples from these different Cancro alla prostata Herbal Medicine categories. Overall, we found that liquid supplements contained the highest fatty acid and phytosterol quantities, followed by powder, dried berry, and tincture supplements. Fatty acid and phytosterol contents have been reported previously for SRM [ 20 ].
Because total fatty acid quantities were not reported, we multiplied the reported free fatty acid composition by the triglyceride to free fatty acid ratio. Our measured total fatty acid and total phytosterol contents These results support that our extraction and analysis procedures were accurate in measuring these components. The total fatty acid percentages of liquid samples The total fatty acid percentages are also consistent Cancro alla prostata Herbal Medicine the sum of the free fatty acids, esters, and glycerides However, the total fatty acid Cancro alla prostata Herbal Medicine are higher than those reported for a saw palmetto ethanol extract Dried berry supplements contained Permixon, one of the powder supplements, has been analyzed previously and reported to contain This was far higher than the Our method Cancro alla prostata Herbal Medicine not extract fatty acids efficiently from powder samples and could be underestimating the fatty acid content.
To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to measure tincture saw palmetto supplements. Ingredients added to saw palmetto supplements Table 1 help explain the differences we found in fatty acid and phytosterol quantities and percentages.