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Prostate cancer is a cancer which develops from cells in the prostate. It is the most common cancer in men in the UK. Each year, about 40, men are diagnosed with prostate cancer in bump prostata UK. It affects about 1 in 8 men bump prostata the UK at some point in their lives.
Most cases develop in men over the age of 65 years. Prostate cancer is often slow-growing, does not reduce life expectancy, and may not need treatment. In some cases it is more aggressive, spreads to other parts of the body and may benefit from treatment. In general, the more advanced the cancer the more it has grown and spreadthe less chance that treatment will be curative. However, treatment can often slow the progress of the cancer. Prostate cancer is different to most other cancers because small areas of cancer within the prostate are actually very common, especially in older men.
These may not grow or cause any problems for many years if at bump prostata. Although the exact cause bump prostata unclear, certain risk factors increase the chance that prostate cancer may develop. Bump prostata include:. Prostate cancer testing is heavily reliant on measuring prostate specific antigen PSA levels, Prostate cancer is often slow-growing. There may be no symptoms at first, even for years. As the tumour grows, it may press on and irritate the urethra, or cause a partial blockage to the flow of urine.
Symptoms may then develop and can include one or more of the following:. Note : all the above symptoms are common bump prostata older men. Most men who develop the above symptoms do not have prostate cancer but have a non-cancerous benign enlargement of the prostate.
However, it is best to have any new symptoms checked bump prostata by a doctor. Other symptoms such as pain at the base of the penis or passing blood occasionally occur. These do not occur with benign prostate enlargement. If the cancer spreads to other parts of the body, various other symptoms can develop. The most common site for the cancer to spread is to one or more bones, especially the pelvis, lower spine and hips.
Affected bones can become painful and tender. Sometimes the first symptoms to develop are from secondary tumours in bones. A biopsy is not always necessary to confirm a diagnosis of prostate bump prostata.
Your bump prostata will be able to discuss the reasons for you to have a biopsy, if appropriate, with you in more detail. Bump prostata small biopsy of the prostate is taken by using a fine needle. This is usually done with the aid of a special ultrasound scanner. The probe of the scanner is about the size and shape of a finger.
It is passed through the anus into the rectum to lie behind the prostate. This finds the exact position of the prostate. The doctor then pushes a fine needle into the back of the prostate from within the rectum to obtain the biopsy.
Several samples are usually taken from different parts of the prostate. Having a prostate biopsy can be uncomfortable. Therefore, local anaesthetic is used to reduce the pain as much as possible. A non-invasive scanning technique can now be used to potentially avoid the need for biopsies. The magnetic resonance imaging MRI scan, which has been approved by the National Institute for Bump prostata and Care Excellence NICE bump prostata, produces a detailed image of the prostate and could prevent unnecessary biopsies for those with low-risk cancer.
Bump prostata is hoped the bump prostata will make it easier to identify cancers earlier and bump prostata the need for further treatment. You can find out more in the 'Further reading' section, below. Bump prostata severity of the bump prostata is mainly based on three factors - the grade of the cancer cells, the stage of the cancer, and the blood PSA level.
Samples of tissue taken bump prostata the biopsy procedure are looked at under the microscope to assess bump prostata cancer cells. By looking at certain features of the cells, the cancer can be graded. The common grading system used is called bump prostata Gleason Score. A Gleason score of between 2 and 6 is a low-grade prostate cancer.
It is likely to grow very slowly. A Gleason score of 7 is an intermediate grade that will grow at a moderate rate. A Gleason score of 8 to10 is a high-grade cancer that is likely to grow more quickly. If you are confirmed to have prostate cancer, further tests may be advised to assess if it has spread. These tests are not advised in all cases. It depends on factors such as your bump prostata and the grade of the tumour cells. This assessment is called staging of the cancer.
The aim of staging is to find out:. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence NICE bump prostata set out standards of treatment for care options for all people referred to hospital for possible prostate cancer or followed up with their GP for prostate cancer care. They have published five standards that all doctors should try to provide for their patients. They depend on the stage of your cancer.
They are:. The treatment of prostate cancer is complicated. Bump prostata varies tremendously between bump prostata cases. In addition, different men may choose to have different treatments compared to others with a similar type of prostate cancer.
Treatment options which may be considered include: surgery, bump prostata, hormone treatment and, less commonly, chemotherapy. Often a combination of two or more of these treatments is used. Treatment may aim to cure the cancer. In particular, the earlier the stage of the cancer, the better the chance of bump prostata cure. Doctors tend to use the word remission rather than the word cured. Remission bump prostata there is no evidence of cancer following treatment.
If you are in remission, you may be cured. However, in some cases a cancer returns months or years later. This is why doctors are sometimes reluctant to use the word cured. Treatment may aim to control the cancer.
If a cure is not realistic, with treatment it is often possible to limit the growth or spread of the cancer bump prostata that it progresses less rapidly. This may keep you free of symptoms for some time. Treatment may aim to ease symptoms. Even if a cure is not possible, treatments may be used to reduce the size of a cancer, which may ease symptoms such as pain. If a cancer is advanced then you may require treatments such as:.
Cryotherapy also known as cryosurgery is an alternative treatment bump prostata men with early prostate cancer and recurrent prostate cancer.
It is not yet available in all hospitals in the UK. It involves placing a number of metal probes through the skin and into bump prostata affected area of the prostate. The probes contain liquid nitrogen, which freezes and destroys the cancer cells. High-intensity focused ultrasound HIFU treatment may be offered to some men, again with early prostate cancer. As this is still a relatively new procedure, it is not yet available bump prostata all hospitals in the UK.
HIFU involves inserting bump prostata probe into the rectum. It is then pushed through the wall bump prostata the bowel into the prostate. The probe produces a high-energy beam of ultrasound which then heats and destroys the cancer. The probe is surrounded by a cooling balloon to protect the normal prostate tissue from damage.
The outlook for prostate cancer is very variable. Some prostate cancers are slow-growing and do not affect life expectancy. On the other hand, some have already spread to other parts of the body when they bump prostata diagnosed.
The response to treatment is also variable. The treatment of cancer is a developing area of medicine. New treatments continue to be developed and the information on outlook above is very general. The specialist who knows your case can give more accurate information about your particular outlook and how well your type and stage of cancer are likely bump prostata respond to treatment.
Screening for prostate cancer is controversial. A routine blood bump prostata which shows a high PSA may indicate that you have prostate cancer. However, there are other causes of a high PSA. Also, many prostate cancers are slow-growing and do not cause problems, particularly in older men. Some experts believe that if all men were screened then there may be many men found with a raised PSA level.